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- North American snake envenomation: diagnosis, treatment, and management.Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004; 22: 423-443
- Snakebite injuries treated in United States emergency departments, 2001-2004.Wilderness Environ Med. 2007; 18: 281-287
- Animal-related fatalities in the United States—an update.Wilderness Environ Med. 2005; 16: 67-74
- Epidemiology of severe and fatal rattlesnake bites published in the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Annual Reports.Clin Toxicol. 2009; 47: 663-669
- The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths.PLoS Med. 2008; 5: e218
- 2004 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System.Am J Emerg Med. 2005; 23: 589-666
- Snake bite.Lancet. 2010; 375: 77-88
- Fasciculations after rattlesnake envenomations: a retrospective statewide poison control system study.Clin Toxicol. 2008; 46: 117-121
- Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop.BMC Emerg Med. 2011; 11: 2
- Use of antivenom for snakebites reported to United States poison centers.Am J Emerg Med. 2010; 28: 780-785
- Initial experience with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom in the treatment of copperhead snakebite.Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 43: 200-206
- Copperhead snakebites: clinical severity of local effects.Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 38: 55-61
- A large single-center experience with treatment of patients with crotalid envenomations: outcomes with and evolution of antivenin therapy.Am J Surg. 2006; 192: 848-852
- Rattlesnake envenomations: unusual case presentations.Arch Intern Med. 2001; 161: 474
- Rattlesnake Envenomation Treatment and Management.Updated November 14, 2012, Accessed October 25 2013)
- Management of crotaline (rattlesnake, water moccasin [cottonmouth] or copperhead) bites in the United States.http://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-crotalinae-rattlesnake-water-moccasin-cottonmouth-or-copperhead-bites-in-the-united-states.com(Updated July 25, 2012. Accessed January 30, 2014)
CroFab [approved package insert]. West Conshohocken, PA: BTG International Inc.; March 2012.
- Copperhead bites and Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine): routine use requires evidence of improved outcomes.Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 43: 207-208
- Is there a role for fasciotomy in Crotalinae envenomations in North America?.Clin Toxicol. 2011; 49: 351-365
- Role of surgical intervention in the management of crotaline snake envenomation.Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 37: 175-180
- Fasciotomy worsens the amount of myonecrosis in a porcine model of crotaline envenomation.Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 44: 99-104
- Validating a faster method for reconstitution of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (ovine).Toxicon. 2013; 69: 42-49
- Incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction and serum sickness following administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom: a meta-analysis.Acad Emerg Med. 2012; 19: 121-131
- Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom.Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51: 407-411
- Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: an integrative review.BMC Emerg Med. 2009; 9: 13
- Medically significant late bleeding after treated crotaline envenomation: a systematic review.Ann Emerg Med. 2014; 63: 71-78
- Care of the critically ill or injured patient during intrafacility transfer.Published July 2010. Accessed January 30, 2014)
- 2010 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 28th Annual Report.Clin Toxicol. 2011; 49: 910-941
- Neutralization of two North American coral snake venoms with United States and Mexican antivenoms.Toxicon. 2008; 51: 297-303
- Venomous Snakebites in the United States: Management Review and Update.Am Fam Physician. 2002; 65: 1367-1375
Disclosures: HA and TK are both paid employees of BTG International Inc, manufacturer of CroFab Crotaline polyvalent immune Fab, ovine, which is mentioned in this article. SS is a paid consultant for BTG International Inc. The professional nurses on the panel (SS, SSS, JC, LZ, and TME) were compensated for their participation on the panel.
Earn Up to 8.5 CE Hours. See page 637.