Bedside Management Considerations in the Treatment of Pit Viper Envenomation

Published:April 02, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2014.01.002
      Death and disability as a result of venomous snake bite is a significant public health concern in both the United States and throughout the world. In the US, an estimated 9000 people are treated for pit viper snakebite annually,
      • Gold BS
      • Barish RA
      • Dart RC
      North American snake envenomation: diagnosis, treatment, and management.
      • O'Neil ME
      • Mack KA
      • Gilchrist J
      • Wozniak EJ
      Snakebite injuries treated in United States emergency departments, 2001-2004.
      • Langley RL
      Animal-related fatalities in the United States—an update.
      and a death rate of 1 in 756 envenomations occurs.
      • Walter FG
      • Stolz U
      • Shirazi F
      • McNally J
      Epidemiology of severe and fatal rattlesnake bites published in the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Annual Reports.
      Worldwide, an estimated 421,000 bites and 20,000 deaths occur annually from venomous snake bites, the majority of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.
      • Kasturiratne A
      • Wickremasinghe AR
      • de Silva N
      • et al.
      The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths.
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      Biography

      Susan Smith, Member, ENA Chapter #362 (Inland Empire), is Staff Nurse, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, and Member, California State Council.

      Biography

      Susan S. Sammons, Member and Past President, ENA Coastal Empire Chapter, is Assistant Professor, School of Nursing Georgia Southern University Statesboro, GA.

      Biography

      Jennifer Carr, Member, ENA Coastal Bend Chapter, is Trauma Program Manager, HCA Corpus Christi Medical Center, Corpus Christi, TX.

      Biography

      Thomas R. King is Senior Manager, Medical Communications, BTG International Inc., West Conshohocken, PA.

      Biography

      Heather S. Ambrose is Scientific Director, BTG International Inc., West Conshohocken, PA.

      Biography

      Lance Zimmet is Registered Nurse, Trauma Intensive Care Unit, Texas Health Resources, Fort Worth, TX.

      Biography

      Terri M. Repasky, Member, ENA Florida Big Bend Chapter, is Emergency/Trauma Clinical Nurse Specialist, Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare, Tallahassee, FL, and President, ENA Florida State Council.